python实现多线程抓取知乎用户

时间:2016-12-17来源:www.aspku.com 作者:脚本之家文章热度:

需要用到的包:

beautifulsoup4
html5lib
image
requests
redis
PyMySQL

pip安装所有依赖包:

pip install \
Image \
requests \
beautifulsoup4 \
html5lib \
redis \
PyMySQL

运行环境需要支持中文

测试运行环境python3.5,不保证其他运行环境能完美运行

需要安装mysql和redis

配置 config.ini 文件,设置好mysql和redis,并且填写你的知乎帐号

向数据库导入 init.sql

Run

开始抓取数据: python get_user.py
查看抓取数量: python check_redis.py

效果

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总体思路

1.首先是模拟登陆知乎,利用保存登陆的cookie信息
2.抓取知乎页面的html代码,留待下一步继续进行分析提取信息
3.分析提取页面中用户的个性化url,放入redis(这里特别说明一下redis的思路用法,将提取到的用户的个性化url放入redis的一个名为already_get_user的hash table,表示已抓取的用户,对于已抓取过的用户判断是否存在于already_get_user以去除重复抓取,同时将个性化url放入user_queue的队列中,需要抓取新用户时pop队列获取新的用户)
4.获取用户的关注列表和粉丝列表,继续插入到redis
5.从redis的user_queue队列中获取新用户继续重复步骤3

模拟登陆知乎

首先是登陆,登陆功能作为一个包封装了在login里面,方便整合调用

header部分,这里Connection最好设为close,不然可能会碰到max retireve exceed的错误
原因在于普通的连接是keep-alive的但是却又没有关闭

# http请求的header
headers = {
  "User-Agent": "Mozilla/5.0 (Windows NT 10.0; Win64; x64) AppleWebKit/537.36 (KHTML, like Gecko) Chrome/53.0.2785.143 Safari/537.36",
  "Accept": "text/html,application/xhtml+xml,application/xml;q=0.9,image/webp,*/*;q=0.8",
  "Host": "www.zhihu.com",
  "Referer": "https://www.zhihu.com/",
  "Origin": "https://www.zhihu.com/",
  "Upgrade-Insecure-Requests": "1",
  "Content-Type": "application/x-www-form-urlencoded; charset=UTF-8",
  "Pragma": "no-cache",
  "Accept-Encoding": "gzip, deflate, br",
  'Connection': 'close'
}

# 验证是否登陆
def check_login(self):
  check_url = 'https://www.zhihu.com/settings/profile'
  try:
    login_check = self.__session.get(check_url, headers=self.headers, timeout=35)
  except Exception as err:
    print(traceback.print_exc())
    print(err)
    print("验证登陆失败,请检查网络")
    sys.exit()
  print("验证登陆的http status code为:" + str(login_check.status_code))
  if int(login_check.status_code) == 200:
    return True
  else:
    return False

进入首页查看http状态码来验证是否登陆,200为已经登陆,一般304就是被重定向所以就是没有登陆

# 获取验证码
def get_captcha(self):
  t = str(time.time() * 1000)
  captcha_url = 'http://www.zhihu.com/captcha.gif?r=' + t + "&type=login"
  r = self.__session.get(captcha_url, headers=self.headers, timeout=35)
  with open('captcha.jpg', 'wb') as f:
    f.write(r.content)
    f.close()
    # 用pillow 的 Image 显示验证码
    # 如果没有安装 pillow 到源代码所在的目录去找到验证码然后手动输入
  '''try:
    im = Image.open('captcha.jpg')
    im.show()
    im.close()
  except:'''
  print(u'请到 %s 目录找到captcha.jpg 手动输入' % os.path.abspath('captcha.jpg'))
  captcha = input("请输入验证码\n>")
  return captcha

获取验证码的方法。当登录次数太多有可能会要求输入验证码,这里实现这个功能

# 获取xsrf
def get_xsrf(self):
  index_url = 'http://www.zhihu.com'
  # 获取登录时需要用到的_xsrf
  try:
    index_page = self.__session.get(index_url, headers=self.headers, timeout=35)
  except:
    print('获取知乎页面失败,请检查网络连接')
    sys.exit()
  html = index_page.text
  # 这里的_xsrf 返回的是一个list
  BS = BeautifulSoup(html, 'html.parser')
  xsrf_input = BS.find(attrs={'name': '_xsrf'})
  pattern = r'value=\"(.*?)\"'
  print(xsrf_input)
  self.__xsrf = re.findall(pattern, str(xsrf_input))
  return self.__xsrf[0]

获取xsrf,为什么要获取xsrf呢,因为xsrf是一种防止跨站攻击的手段,具体介绍可以看这里csrf
在获取到xsrf之后把xsrf存入cookie当中,并且在调用api的时候带上xsrf作为头部,不然的话知乎会返回403

# 进行模拟登陆
def do_login(self):
  try:
    # 模拟登陆
    if self.check_login():
      print('您已经登录')
      return
    else:
      if self.config.get("zhihu_account", "username") and self.config.get("zhihu_account", "password"):
        self.username = self.config.get("zhihu_account", "username")
        self.password = self.config.get("zhihu_account", "password")
      else:
        self.username = input('请输入你的用户名\n> ')
        self.password = input("请输入你的密码\n> ")
  except Exception as err:
    print(traceback.print_exc())
    print(err)
    sys.exit()
  if re.match(r"^1\d{10}$", self.username):
    print("手机登陆\n")
    post_url = 'http://www.zhihu.com/login/phone_num'
    postdata = {
      '_xsrf': self.get_xsrf(),
      'password': self.password,
      'remember_me': 'true',
      'phone_num': self.username,
    }
  else:
    print("邮箱登陆\n")
    post_url = 'http://www.zhihu.com/login/email'
    postdata = {
      '_xsrf': self.get_xsrf(),
      'password': self.password,
      'remember_me': 'true',
      'email': self.username,
    }
  try:
    login_page = self.__session.post(post_url, postdata, headers=self.headers, timeout=35)
    login_text = json.loads(login_page.text.encode('latin-1').decode('unicode-escape'))
    print(postdata)
    print(login_text)
    # 需要输入验证码 r = 0为登陆成功代码
    if login_text['r'] == 1:
      sys.exit()
  except:
    postdata['captcha'] = self.get_captcha()
    login_page = self.__session.post(post_url, postdata, headers=self.headers, timeout=35)
    print(json.loads(login_page.text.encode('latin-1').decode('unicode-escape')))
  # 保存登陆cookie
  self.__session.cookies.save()

这个就是核心的登陆功能啦,非常关键的就是用到了requests库,非常方便的保存到session
我们这里全局都是用单例模式,统一使用同一个requests.session对象进行访问功能,保持登录状态的一致性

最后主要调用登陆的代码为

# 创建login对象
lo = login.login.Login(self.session)
# 模拟登陆
if lo.check_login():
  print('您已经登录')
else:
  if self.config.get("zhihu_account", "username") and self.config.get("zhihu_account", "username"):
    username = self.config.get("zhihu_account", "username")
    password = self.config.get("zhihu_account", "password")
  else:
    username = input('请输入你的用户名\n> ')
    password = input("请输入你的密码\n> ")
  lo.do_login(username, password)

知乎模拟登陆到此就完成啦

知乎用户抓取

def __init__(self, threadID=1, name=''):
  # 多线程
  print("线程" + str(threadID) + "初始化")
  threading.Thread.__init__(self)
  self.threadID = threadID
  self.name = name
  try:
    print("线程" + str(threadID) + "初始化成功")
  except Exception as err:
    print(err)
    print("线程" + str(threadID) + "开启失败")
  self.threadLock = threading.Lock()
  # 获取配置
  self.config = configparser.ConfigParser()
  self.config.read("config.ini")
  # 初始化session
  requests.adapters.DEFAULT_RETRIES = 5
  self.session = requests.Session()
  self.session.cookies = cookielib.LWPCookieJar(filename='cookie')
  self.session.keep_alive = False
  try:
    self.session.cookies.load(ignore_discard=True)
  except:
    print('Cookie 未能加载')
  finally:
    pass
  # 创建login对象
  lo = Login(self.session)
  lo.do_login()
  # 初始化redis连接
  try:
    redis_host = self.config.get("redis", "host")
    redis_port = self.config.get("redis", "port")
    self.redis_con = redis.Redis(host=redis_host, port=redis_port, db=0)
    # 刷新redis库
    # self.redis_con.flushdb()
  except:
    print("请安装redis或检查redis连接配置")
    sys.exit()
  # 初始化数据库连接
  try:
    db_host = self.config.get("db", "host")
    db_port = int(self.config.get("db", "port"))
    db_user = self.config.get("db", "user")
    db_pass = self.config.get("db", "password")
    db_db = self.config.get("db", "db")
    db_charset = self.config.get("db", "charset")
    self.db = pymysql.connect(host=db_host, port=db_port, user=db_user, passwd=db_pass, db=db_db,
                 charset=db_charset)
    self.db_cursor = self.db.cursor()
  except:
    print("请检查数据库配置")
    sys.exit()
  # 初始化系统设置
  self.max_queue_len = int(self.config.get("sys", "max_queue_len"))

这个是get_user.py的构造函数,主要功能就是初始化mysql连接、redis连接、验证登陆、生成全局的session对象、导入系统配置、开启多线程。

# 获取首页html
def get_index_page(self):
  index_url = 'https://www.zhihu.com/'
  try:
    index_html = self.session.get(index_url, headers=self.headers, timeout=35)
  except Exception as err:
    # 出现异常重试
    print("获取页面失败,正在重试......")
    print(err)
    traceback.print_exc()
    return None
  finally:
    pass
  return index_html.text
# 获取单个用户详情页面
def get_user_page(self, name_url):
  user_page_url = 'https://www.zhihu.com' + str(name_url) + '/about'
  try:
    index_html = self.session.get(user_page_url, headers=self.headers, timeout=35)
  except Exception as err:
    # 出现异常重试
    print("失败name_url:" + str(name_url) + "获取页面失败,放弃该用户")
    print(err)
    traceback.print_exc()
    return None
  finally:
    pass
  return index_html.text
# 获取粉丝页面
def get_follower_page(self, name_url):
  user_page_url = 'https://www.zhihu.com' + str(name_url) + '/followers'
  try:
    index_html = self.session.get(user_page_url, headers=self.headers, timeout=35)
  except Exception as err:
    # 出现异常重试
    print("失败name_url:" + str(name_url) + "获取页面失败,放弃该用户")
    print(err)
    traceback.print_exc()
    return None
  finally:
    pass
  return index_html.text
def get_following_page(self, name_url):
  user_page_url = 'https://www.zhihu.com' + str(name_url) + '/followers'
  try:
    index_html = self.session.get(user_page_url, headers=self.headers, timeout=35)
  except Exception as err:
    # 出现异常重试
    print("失败name_url:" + str(name_url) + "获取页面失败,放弃该用户")
    print(err)
    traceback.print_exc()
    return None
  finally:
    pass
  return index_html.text
# 获取首页上的用户列表,存入redis
def get_index_page_user(self):
  index_html = self.get_index_page()
  if not index_html:
    return
  BS = BeautifulSoup(index_html, "html.parser")
  self.get_xsrf(index_html)
  user_a = BS.find_all("a", class_="author-link") # 获取用户的a标签
  for a in user_a:
    if a:
      self.add_wait_user(a.get('href'))
    else:
      continue

这一部分的代码就是用于抓取各个页面的html代码

# 加入带抓取用户队列,先用redis判断是否已被抓取过
def add_wait_user(self, name_url):
  # 判断是否已抓取
  self.threadLock.acquire()
  if not self.redis_con.hexists('already_get_user', name_url):
    self.counter += 1
    print(name_url + " 加入队列")
    self.redis_con.hset('already_get_user', name_url, 1)
    self.redis_con.lpush('user_queue', name_url)
    print("添加用户 " + name_url + "到队列")
  self.threadLock.release()
# 获取页面出错移出redis
def del_already_user(self, name_url):
  self.threadLock.acquire()
  if not self.redis_con.hexists('already_get_user', name_url):
    self.counter -= 1
    self.redis_con.hdel('already_get_user', name_url)
  self.threadLock.release()

用户加入redis的操作,在数据库插入出错时我们调用del_already_user删除插入出错的用户

# 分析粉丝页面获取用户的所有粉丝用户
# @param follower_page get_follower_page()中获取到的页面,这里获取用户hash_id请求粉丝接口获取粉丝信息
def get_all_follower(self, name_url):
  follower_page = self.get_follower_page(name_url)
  # 判断是否获取到页面
  if not follower_page:
    return
  BS = BeautifulSoup(follower_page, 'html.parser')
  # 获取关注者数量
  follower_num = int(BS.find('span', text='关注者').find_parent().find('strong').get_text())
  # 获取用户的hash_id
  hash_id = \
    json.loads(BS.select("#zh-profile-follows-list")[0].select(".zh-general-list")[0].get('data-init'))[
      'params'][
      'hash_id']
  # 获取关注者列表
  self.get_xsrf(follower_page) # 获取xsrf
  post_url = 'https://www.zhihu.com/node/ProfileFollowersListV2'
  # 开始获取所有的关注者 math.ceil(follower_num/20)*20
  for i in range(0, math.ceil(follower_num / 20) * 20, 20):
    post_data = {
      'method': 'next',
      'params': json.dumps({"offset": i, "order_by": "created", "hash_id": hash_id})
    }
    try:
      j = self.session.post(post_url, params=post_data, headers=self.headers, timeout=35).text.encode(
        'latin-1').decode(
        'unicode-escape')
      pattern = re.compile(r"class=\"zm-item-link-avatar\"[^\"]*\"([^\"]*)", re.DOTALL)
      j = pattern.findall(j)
      for user in j:
        user = user.replace('\\', '')
        self.add_wait_user(user) # 保存到redis
    except Exception as err:
      print("获取正在关注失败")
      print(err)
      traceback.print_exc()
      pass
# 获取正在关注列表
def get_all_following(self, name_url):
  following_page = self.get_following_page(name_url)
  # 判断是否获取到页面
  if not following_page:
    return
  BS = BeautifulSoup(following_page, 'html.parser')
  # 获取关注者数量
  following_num = int(BS.find('span', text='关注了').find_parent().find('strong').get_text())
  # 获取用户的hash_id
  hash_id = \
    json.loads(BS.select("#zh-profile-follows-list")[0].select(".zh-general-list")[0].get('data-init'))[
      'params'][
      'hash_id']
  # 获取关注者列表
  self.get_xsrf(following_page) # 获取xsrf
  post_url = 'https://www.zhihu.com/node/ProfileFolloweesListV2'
  # 开始获取所有的关注者 math.ceil(follower_num/20)*20
  for i in range(0, math.ceil(following_num / 20) * 20, 20):
    post_data = {
      'method': 'next',
      'params': json.dumps({"offset": i, "order_by": "created", "hash_id": hash_id})
    }
    try:
      j = self.session.post(post_url, params=post_data, headers=self.headers, timeout=35).text.encode(
        'latin-1').decode(
        'unicode-escape')
      pattern = re.compile(r"class=\"zm-item-link-avatar\"[^\"]*\"([^\"]*)", re.DOTALL)
      j = pattern.findall(j)
      for user in j:
        user = user.replace('\\', '')
        self.add_wait_user(user) # 保存到redis
    except Exception as err:
      print("获取正在关注失败")
      print(err)
      traceback.print_exc()
      pass

调用知乎的API,获取所有的关注用户列表和粉丝用户列表,递归获取用户
这里需要注意的是头部要记得带上xsrf不然会抛出403

# 分析about页面,获取用户详细资料
def get_user_info(self, name_url):
  about_page = self.get_user_page(name_url)
  # 判断是否获取到页面
  if not about_page:
    print("获取用户详情页面失败,跳过,name_url:" + name_url)
    return
  self.get_xsrf(about_page)
  BS = BeautifulSoup(about_page, 'html.parser')
  # 获取页面的具体数据
  try:
    nickname = BS.find("a", class_="name").get_text() if BS.find("a", class_="name") else ''
    user_type = name_url[1:name_url.index('/', 1)]
    self_domain = name_url[name_url.index('/', 1) + 1:]
    gender = 2 if BS.find("i", class_="icon icon-profile-female") else (1 if BS.find("i", class_="icon icon-profile-male") else 3)
    follower_num = int(BS.find('span', text='关注者').find_parent().find('strong').get_text())
    following_num = int(BS.find('span', text='关注了').find_parent().find('strong').get_text())
    agree_num = int(re.findall(r'<strong>(.*)</strong>.*赞同', about_page)[0])
    appreciate_num = int(re.findall(r'<strong>(.*)</strong>.*感谢', about_page)[0])
    star_num = int(re.findall(r'<strong>(.*)</strong>.*收藏', about_page)[0])
    share_num = int(re.findall(r'<strong>(.*)</strong>.*分享', about_page)[0])
    browse_num = int(BS.find_all("span", class_="zg-gray-normal")[2].find("strong").get_text())
    trade = BS.find("span", class_="business item").get('title') if BS.find("span",
                                       class_="business item") else ''
    company = BS.find("span", class_="employment item").get('title') if BS.find("span",
                                         class_="employment item") else ''
    school = BS.find("span", class_="education item").get('title') if BS.find("span",
                                        class_="education item") else ''
    major = BS.find("span", class_="education-extra item").get('title') if BS.find("span",
                                           class_="education-extra item") else ''
    job = BS.find("span", class_="position item").get_text() if BS.find("span",
                                      class_="position item") else ''
    location = BS.find("span", class_="location item").get('title') if BS.find("span",
                                         class_="location item") else ''
    description = BS.find("div", class_="bio ellipsis").get('title') if BS.find("div",
                                          class_="bio ellipsis") else ''
    ask_num = int(BS.find_all("a", class_='item')[1].find("span").get_text()) if \
      BS.find_all("a", class_='item')[
        1] else int(0)
    answer_num = int(BS.find_all("a", class_='item')[2].find("span").get_text()) if \
      BS.find_all("a", class_='item')[
        2] else int(0)
    article_num = int(BS.find_all("a", class_='item')[3].find("span").get_text()) if \
      BS.find_all("a", class_='item')[3] else int(0)
    collect_num = int(BS.find_all("a", class_='item')[4].find("span").get_text()) if \
      BS.find_all("a", class_='item')[4] else int(0)
    public_edit_num = int(BS.find_all("a", class_='item')[5].find("span").get_text()) if \
      BS.find_all("a", class_='item')[5] else int(0)
    replace_data = \
      (pymysql.escape_string(name_url), nickname, self_domain, user_type,
       gender, follower_num, following_num, agree_num, appreciate_num, star_num, share_num, browse_num,
       trade, company, school, major, job, location, pymysql.escape_string(description),
       ask_num, answer_num, article_num, collect_num, public_edit_num)
    replace_sql = '''REPLACE INTO
           user(url,nickname,self_domain,user_type,
           gender, follower,following,agree_num,appreciate_num,star_num,share_num,browse_num,
           trade,company,school,major,job,location,description,
           ask_num,answer_num,article_num,collect_num,public_edit_num)
           VALUES(%s,%s,%s,%s,
           %s,%s,%s,%s,%s,%s,%s,%s,
           %s,%s,%s,%s,%s,%s,%s,
           %s,%s,%s,%s,%s)'''
    try:
      print("获取到数据:")
      print(replace_data)
      self.db_cursor.execute(replace_sql, replace_data)
      self.db.commit()
    except Exception as err:
      print("插入数据库出错")
      print("获取到数据:")
      print(replace_data)
      print("插入语句:" + self.db_cursor._last_executed)
      self.db.rollback()
      print(err)
      traceback.print_exc()
  except Exception as err:
    print("获取数据出错,跳过用户")
    self.redis_con.hdel("already_get_user", name_url)
    self.del_already_user(name_url)
    print(err)
    traceback.print_exc()
    pass

最后,到用户的about页面,分析页面元素,利用正则或者beatifulsoup分析抓取页面的数据
这里我们SQL语句用REPLACE INTO而不用INSERT INTO,这样可以很好的防止数据重复问题

# 开始抓取用户,程序总入口
def entrance(self):
  while 1:
    if int(self.redis_con.llen("user_queue")) < 1:
      self.get_index_page_user()
    else:
      # 出队列获取用户name_url redis取出的是byte,要decode成utf-8
      name_url = str(self.redis_con.rpop("user_queue").decode('utf-8'))
      print("正在处理name_url:" + name_url)
      self.get_user_info(name_url)
      if int(self.redis_con.llen("user_queue")) <= int(self.max_queue_len):
        self.get_all_follower(name_url)
        self.get_all_following(name_url)
    self.session.cookies.save()
def run(self):
  print(self.name + " is running")
  self.entrance()

最后,入口

if __name__ == '__main__':
  login = GetUser(999, "登陆线程")
  threads = []
  for i in range(0, 4):
    m = GetUser(i, "thread" + str(i))
    threads.append(m)
  for i in range(0, 4):
    threads[i].start()
  for i in range(0, 4):
    threads[i].join()

这里就是多线程的开启,需要开启多少个线程就把4换成多少就可以了

Docker

嫌麻烦的可以参考一下我用docker简单的搭建一个基础环境:

mysql和redis都是官方镜像

docker run --name mysql -itd mysql:latest
docker run --name redis -itd mysql:latest

再利用docker-compose运行python镜像,我的python的docker-compose.yml:

python:
 container_name: python
 build: .
 ports:
  - "84:80"
 external_links:
  - memcache:memcache
  - mysql:mysql
  - redis:redis
 volumes:
  - /docker_containers/python/www:/var/www/html
 tty: true
 stdin_open: true
 extra_hosts:
  - "python:192.168.102.140"
 environment:
  PYTHONIOENCODING: utf-8

最后附上源代码: GITHUB https://github.com/kong36088/ZhihuSpider

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